American Forts Network

Bibliography of Works Consulted

This is a master listing of works consulted for research on Latin American Forts. Additional information was gathered from many third-party websites, which will not be listed here. Websites are linked within the actual fort listings. Additional information and material was also sent in by email and regular postal mail from many people around the country, and may be noted as such within the actual fort listings, or on the yearly "update" pages.

Where a certain source was used for more than one country, it will be listed here only once, either under GENERAL REFERENCES, or under the first (or major) country referenced. Travel guides and maps are denoted by the latest year acquired. Citations in blue indicate library sources that are not in my personal collection.


Chartrand, RenÚ, The Spanish Army in North America 1700 - 1793 (Men-at-Arms 475), 2011, Osprey Publishing Ltd., Botley, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Chartrand, RenÚ, The Spanish Main 1492 - 1800 (Fortress 49), 2006, Osprey Publishing Ltd., Botley, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Hough, Granville W., and N.C. Hough, Spanish, French, Dutch, and American Patriots of the West Indies During the American Revolution, Spanish Borderland Studies Part 7, 2001, Society of Hispanic Historical and Ancestral Research (SHHAR) Press, Midway City, California.

Konstam, Angus, Elizabethan Sea Dogs 1560-1605 (Elite 70), 2000, Osprey Publishing Ltd., Botley, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Konstam, Angus, The Great Expedition: Sir Francis Drake on the Spanish Main 1585-86 (Raid 17), 2011, Osprey Publishing Ltd., Botley, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, Merriam-Webster Inc., Springfield, Massachusetts.


Foster, Lynn V., A Brief History of Central America, 2000, 2007 (2nd ed.), Checkmark Books (Infobase Publishing), New York.

Friar, William, Moon Spotlight Guide: Panama City and the Panama Canal, 2008, Avalon Travel Publishing, Berkeley, California.

National Geographic Society, Central America: Past and Present, fold-out map supplement, from National Geographic Magazine, Vol. 169, No. 4, April 1986.


Cuba: DK Eyewitness Travel Guide, 2002, revised 2007, Dorling Kindersley Ltd., London.

Cohen, Stan, Images of the Spanish-American War: April-August 1898, 1997, Pictorial Histories Publishing Company, Inc., Missoula, Montana.

Goff, Eugenia Wheeler, and Henry Slade Goff, Goff's Historical Map of the Spanish-American War in the West Indies, 1898, map, 1899, Fort Dearborn Publishing Company, Chicago.

Goldstein, Donald M., Katherine V. Dillon, J. Michael Wenger, and Robert J. Cressman, The Spanish-American War: The Story and Photographs, 1998, reprint 2000, Brassey's, Inc., Dulles, Virginia.

Greentree, David, A Far-Flung Gamble: Havana 1762 (Raid 15), 2011, Osprey Publishing Ltd., Botley, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Judge, Joseph, The Many Lives of Old Havana, (map insert of Old Havana) in National Geographic Magazine, Vol. 176, No. 2, Aug. 1989, National Geographic Society, Washington.

Konstam, Angus, San Juan 1898, 1998, Osprey Publishing, Botley, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Luengo, Pedro, Military Engineering in Eighteenth-Century Havana and Manila: The Experience of the Seven Years War, in War in History, Vol. 24, No. 1, 2017.

McElfresh, Earl B., Santiago de Cuba, Cuba, 1898 map, World Battlefields Watercolor Map Series, McElfresh Map Company, Olean, New York.

Niglio, Olimpia, Geometry and Genius Loci: Battista Antonelli's Fortifications in Havana, in Nexus Network Journal of Architecture and Mathematics, Vol. 16, 2014.

Rogozinski, Jan, A Brief History of the Caribbean: From the Arawak and the Carib to the Present, 1992, Facts on File, Inc., New York.

Sims, Philip, The U.S. Navy and the Coast Defenses of the Spanish Empire, in The Coast Defense Journal, Vol. 19, No. 1, Feb. 2005.


Insight Guide: Mexico, 1983, 2010 (8th edition), Apa Publications, Langenscheidt Publishers, Inc., Long Island City, New York.

Mexico TravelBook 1998 and Highway Map, American Automobile Association, Heathrow, Florida.

Christensen, Carol, and Thomas Christensen, The U.S.-Mexican War: Companion to the Public Television Series, 1998, Bay Books, San Francisco.

de Quesada, Alejandro, The Hunt for Pancho Villa: The Columbus Raid and Pershing's Punitive Expedition 1916-17 (Raid 29), 2012, Osprey Publishing, Botley, Oxford, United Kingdom.

de Quesada, Alejandro, Spanish Colonial Fortifications in North America 1565-1822 (Fortress 94), 2010, Osprey Publishing Ltd., Botley, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Hymel, Kevin M., Shootout at Rubio Ranch, in Military Heritage Magazine, October 2010.

Jowett, Philip, and Alejandro de Quesada, The Mexican Revolution 1910 - 20 (Elite 137), 2006, Osprey Publishing Ltd., Botley, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Moorhead, Max L., The Presidio: Bastion of the Spanish Borderlands, 1975, 1991, University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, Oklahoma.

Naylor, Thomas H., and Charles W. Polzer (editors), Pedro de Rivera and the Military Regulations for Northern New Spain, 1724-1729: A Documentary History of His Frontier Inspection and the "Reglamento de 1729", 1988, The University of Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona.

Niderost, Eric, Blood on the Border, in Military Heritage Magazine, October 2010.

Prieto, Julie I., The Mexican Expedition 1916-1917, The U.S. Army Campaigns of World War I, 2016, U.S. Army Center of Military History, Washington.

Secretaria de la Defensa Nacional, El EjÚrcito Mexicano, 1979, Mexico City.

Sheppard, Si, Tenochtitlan 1519-21: Clash of Civilizations (Campaign 321), 2018, Osprey Publishing Ltd., Oxford, United Kingdom.

Latin American Forts