American Forts Network

GULF COAST - CARIBBEAN ISLANDS

Bibliography of Works Consulted

This is a master listing of works consulted in my research on American Forts of the Gulf Coast of the United States. Additional information was gathered from many third-party websites, which will not be listed here. Websites are linked within the actual fort listings. Additional information and material was also sent in by email and regular postal mail from many people around the country, and may be noted as such within the actual fort listings, or on the yearly "update" pages.

Where a certain source was used for more than one state, it will be listed here only once, either under GENERAL REFERENCES, or under the first (or major) state referenced. Citations in blue indicate library sources that are not in my personal collection.


GENERAL REFERENCES

Sources previously listed under SOUTHEASTERN GENERAL REFERENCES will not be repeated here


Coker, William C. (ed.), The Military Presence on the Gulf Coast, 1978, Proceedings of the Gulf Coast History and Humanities Conference, Vol. VII.

de Quesada, Alejandro M., Spanish Colonial Fortifications in North America 1565-1822, 2010, Osprey Publishing Ltd., Botley, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Field, Ron, American Civil War Fortifications: The Mississippi and River Forts, 2007, Osprey Publishing Ltd., Botley, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Gaines, William C., Temporary Harbor Defenses in the Southern Defense Command, 1942-1944, in The Coast Defense Journal, Vol. 16, No. 1, Feb. 2002.

Gilbert, Ed, Frontier Militiamen in the War of 1812: Southwestern Frontier, 2008, Osprey Publishing Ltd., Botley, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Hough, Granville W., and N.C. Hough, Spanish, French, Dutch, and American Patriots of the West Indies During the American Revolution, Spanish Borderland Studies Part 7, 2001, Society of Hispanic Historical and Ancestral Research (SHHAR) Press, Midway City, California.

Hudson, Charles, and Carmen Chaves Tesser (eds.), The Forgotten Centuries: Indians and Europeans in the American South, 1521-1704, 1994, The University of Georgia Press, Athens, Georgia.

Johnson, C.L., Report on Various Fortifications on the Gulf Coast typed report, undated (1936 ?), National Park Service.

Judge, Joseph, Between Columbus and Jamestown: Exploring Our Forgotten Century, in National Geographic Magazine, Vol. 173, No. 3, March 1988, National Geographic Society, Washington.

Konstam, Angus, Elizabethan Sea Dogs 1560-1605, 2000, Osprey Publishing Ltd., Botley, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Miles, Jim, A River Unvexed: A History and Tour Guide of the Campaign for the Mississippi River, 1994, Rutledge Hill Press, Inc., Nashville, Tennessee.

Milanich, Jerald T., and Susan Milbrath (editors), First Encounters: Spanish Explorations in the Caribbean and the United States, 1492-1570, 1989, 1991 (Third Printing), University of Florida Press, Gainesville, Florida.

Smith, Joseph B., The Plot to Steal Florida: James Madison's Phony War, 1983, Arbor House Publishing Co., New York.

Toops, Connie, National Seashores: The Story Behind the Scenery, 1987, 2nd Printing 1993, KC Publications, Inc., Las Vegas, Nevada.

Zink, Robert D., Forts of "Wherever" #17 - Forts of the U.S. Gulf Coast, Part I - Key West Through Mobile Bay, in Coast Defense Study Group News, Vol. 6, No. 4, Nov. 1992.

Zink, Robert D., Some Gulf Coast Temporary Harbor Defense Activities, 1943-44, in The Coast Defense Study Group Journal, Vol. 10, No. 3, Aug. 1996.


ALABAMA

Alabama Atlas and Gazetteer, 2006 (3rd edition), DeLorme, Yarmouth, Maine.

Alabama Historical Commission, Fort Toulouse-Fort Jackson State Historic Site: Walking Tour handout, undated.

Alabama Historical Commission, Fort Toulouse-Jackson Park brochure, undated.

Bailey, Michael, The Second British Attack on Fort Bowyer, February 1815, Fort Morgan Notes #15, Jan. 2004, revised Nov. 2006, Fort Morgan National Historic Landmark.

Bergeron, Arthur W., Jr., Confederate Mobile, 1991, University Press of Mississippi, Jackson, Mississippi.

Coker, William S., The Last Battle of the War of 1812: New Orleans. No, Fort Bowyer!, in Alabama Historical Quarterly, Vol. XLIII, No. 1, Spring 1981, reprinted 1981 by The Perdido Bay Press, Pensacola, Florida.

Dauphin Island Park and Beach Board, Fort Gaines and Confederate Museum: History and Tour Guide brochure, undated (1960s).

Decatur-Morgan County Convention and Visitors Bureau, The 1864 Battle for Decatur, Alabama: A Civil War Walking Tour, brochure, 2001.

England, Bob, and Jack Friend, Michael Bailey, Blanton Blankenship, Fort Morgan, 2000, reprint 2004, Arcadia Publishing, Charleston, South Carolina.

Fort Gaines Historic Site, Fort Gaines brochure, 1995, 2012.

Fort Morgan National Historic Landmark, Fort Morgan, 1834: Guardian on the Bay brochure, undated.

Gaines, William C., The Modern Coast Defenses of Mobile Bay 1865-1945 (Part I), in The Coast Defense Journal, Vol. 24, No. 1, Feb. 2010.

Gaines, William C., The Modern Coast Defenses of Mobile Bay 1865-1945 (Part II), in The Coast Defense Journal, Vol. 24, No. 2, May 2010.

Gaines, William C., The Modern Coast Defenses of Mobile Bay 1865-1945 (Part III), in The Coast Defense Journal, Vol. 24, No. 3, Aug. 2010.

Gums, Bonnie L., Earthfast (Pieux en Terre) Structures at Old Mobile, in French Colonial Archaeology at Old Mobile: Selected Studies, Gregory A. Waselkov (editor), Historical Archaeology, Vol. 32, No. 1, 2002, The Society for Historical Archaeology.

Hays, Robert D., and Richard L. Farrelly, Jr., Fort Gaines Under Two Flags 1861-1865 and The Battle of Mobile Bay, 1955, Dauphin Island Park and Beach Board, Dauphin Island, Alabama.

Higginbotham, Jay, Old Mobile: Fort Louis de la Louisiane, 1702-1711, 1977 (1991 reprint), The University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa, Alabama.

Manuel, Dale A., The Defenses of the Lower Mobile Bay, 1999, self-published.

Marquis, Christopher G., Reckoning at Horseshoe Bend, in Military Heritage Magazine, August 2010.

National Park Service, Horseshoe Bend National Military Park brochures, 1974, 1981, 1989.

National Park Service, Horseshoe Bend NMP, Archaeology: An Adventure in the Depths of Time..." handout, undated.

Schell, Sidney H., Fort Powell and the Civil War: Western Approaches to Mobile Bay, 1861-1865, 2012, Heritage Books, Inc., Westminster, Maryland.

Smith, Bolling, Fort Powell: Forgotten Guardian of Mobile Bay, in The Coast Defense Study Group Journal, Vol. 14, No. 4, Nov. 2000.

Thomas, Daniel H., Fort Toulouse: The French Outpost at the Alabamas on the Coosa, 1960, 1989, The University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa, Alabama.

Waselkov, Gregory A., French Colonial Archaeology at Old Mobile: An Introduction, in French Colonial Archaeology at Old Mobile: Selected Studies, Gregory A. Waselkov (editor), Historical Archaeology, Vol. 32, No. 1, 2002, The Society for Historical Archaeology.

Wertz, Jay, Mobile, in Civil War Times Magazine, October 2006.


ATLANTIC AND CARIBBEAN ISLANDS

Greenland Holiday Travel Guide, 1994, Greenland Tourism a/s, Nuuk, Greenland.

Bermuda: What To Do and Handy Reference Map, 1994, Bermuda Department of Tourism, Hamilton, Bermuda.

Caribbean TravelBook 1998, American Automobile Association, Heathrow, Florida.

Caribbean Vacation Planner, Vol. 2, 1995, Caribbean Coalition for Tourism, New York.

Discover Jamaica Road Map, undated (1994 ?), American Map Corporation.

Jamaica Vacation Guide 1996, Creative Communications Inc., Ltd., Kingston, Jamaica.

1995 Road Map - Antigua and Barbuda, Cartographers Limited, Mantoloking, New Jersey.

Discover Trinidad and Tobago Travel Guide 1995, Trinidad and Tobago Hotel and Tourism Association, Port of Spain, Trinidad.

Conn, Stetson, and Rose C. Engelman, Byron Fairchild, Guarding the United States and Its Outposts, 1964, Office of the Chief of Military History, Department of the Army, Washington.

Donovan, James A., Outpost in the North Atlantic: Marines in the Defense of Iceland, 1992, Marine Corps Historical Center, Washington.

Findlay, Robert, The Guide to the Forts and Castles of the Caribbean Islands, 2007 (6th ed.), self-published, Lulu.com.

Furbert, Lance, III, Forts of Bermuda in Bermuda's Parks brochure, 1998, Bermuda Dept. of Tourism, Hamilton, Bermuda.

Gaines, William C., 28th Coast Artillery Battalion and the Defense of Saint Lucia and Ascension Islands, in the Coast Defense Journal, Vol. 20, No. 3, Aug. 2006.

Gaines, William C., Coast Artillery in the Trinidad Base Command and Sector, 1941-1946, in The Coast Defense Study Group Journal, Vol. 11, No. 2, May 1997.

Gaines, William C., The United States Coast Artillery Command on Aruba and Curaçao in World War II, in The Coast Defense Study Group Journal, Vol. 11, No. 2, May 1997.

Grobmeier, Alvin H., Battery B, 28th Coast Artillery Battalion on Ascension Island, in Coast Defense Study Group News, Vol. 5, No. 1, Feb. 1991.

Herz, Norman, Covering the Azores Gap, in WWII History Magazine, December 2009.

Jones, Rosemary, Moon Handbooks: Bermuda, 2009 (2nd Edition), Avalon Travel Publishing, Berkeley, California.

McGovern, Terrance, The World War II Defenses of Bermuda, in The Coast Defense Study Group Journal, Vol. 12, No. 1, Feb. 1998.

McGovern, Terrance, and Edward Harris, Defenses of Bermuda 1612-1995, 2018, Osprey Publishing Ltd., Oxford, United Kingdom.

Rogozinski, Jan, A Brief History of the Caribbean: From the Arawak and the Carib to the Present, 1992, Facts on File, Inc., New York.

Stevenson, Ian, The Defenses of the British West Indies: The Last Three Score Years and Ten, in The Coast Defense Study Group Journal, Vol. 14, No. 3, Aug. 2000.

Travelguide Publishers, Inc., Nassau: A Complete Guide to the Capital of the Bahamas, 1963, Nassua, Bahamas.

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Building the Navy's Bases in World War II: History of the Bureau of Yards and Docks and the Civil Engineer Corps, 1940-1946, Volume II, 1947, Government Printing Office, Washington.

Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, Merriam-Webster Inc., Springfield, Massachusetts.

Zink, Robert D., CDSG Trip Tour of Bermuda Forts, March 1989, in Coast Defense Study Group News, Vol. 3, No. 3, Aug. 1989.


CANAL ZONE

Gardner, Hugh H., and Norman T. Carpenter, The Fortifications of the Panama Canal, 1965, reprinted transcription (with Supplemental Data Declassified in 1976) by Bill Cole, 1999.

Friar, William, Moon Spotlight Guide: Panama City and the Panama Canal, 2008, Avalon Travel Publishing, Berkeley, California.

McGovern, Terrance, The American Defences of the Panama Canal, 1999, Nearhos Publications, Rock Ferry, Wirral, United Kingdom.

Rottman, Gordon, Panama 1989-90, 1991, Osprey Publishing Ltd., London, United Kingdom.


FLORIDA

Florida Atlas and Gazetteer, 2003 (7th edition), DeLorme, Yarmouth, Maine.

Austin, Robert J., and Greg S. Hendryx, Brian E. Worthington, Debra J. Wells, Excavation of a Mid-Nineteenth-Century Barrel Well and Associated Features at Fort Brooke, Tampa, Florida, in The Florida Anthropologist, Vol. 64, Nos. 3-4, September-December 2011.

Baker County Haritage Park, Burnsed Block House brochure, 2003.

Bearss, Edwin C., Fort Pickens 1821-1895: Historic Structures Report, Historic Data Section, undated, National Park Service.

Bearss, Edwin C., Historic Structure Report, Historical Data Section, Fort Pickens 1821-1895, Gulf Islands National Seashore, Florida/Mississippi, 1983, National Park Service, Historic Preservation Division, Denver Service Center, Denver, Colorado.

Bearss, Edwin C., Historic Structure Report and Historic Resource Study, Fort Barrancas, Gulf Islands National Seashore, Florida, 1983, National Park Service, Denver Service Center, Denver, Colorado.

Bearss, Edwin C., Historic Structure Report and Resource Study, Pensacola Harbor Defense Project 1890-1947, Gulf Islands National Seashore, Florida, 1982, National Park Service, Denver Service Center, Denver, Colorado.

Bennett, Charles E., Fort Caroline and Its Leader, 1976, The University of Florida Press, Gainesville, Florida (reprint 2002, Eastern National Parks Association).

Brown, Jennifer D., Castillo de San Marcos National Monument, Historic Resource Study, 1997, National Park Service, Southeast Region, Atlanta, Georgia.

Bushnell, Amy T., Situado and Sabana: Spain's Support System for the Presidio and Mission Provinces of Florida, Anthropological Papers, No. 74, American Museum of Natural History, 1994, University of Georgia Press, Athens, Georgia.

Carlisle, Rodney, and Loretta, Forts of Florida: A Guidebook, 2012, University Press of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.

Chandler, Linda (ed.), Fort Matanzas National Monument, Park Handbook, 2002, Historic Print and Map Company, St. Augustine, Florida.

Chartrand, René, The Spanish Main 1492 - 1800, 2006, Osprey Publishing Ltd., Botley, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Coleman, James C., and Irene S., Guardians on the Gulf: Pensacola Fortifications, 1698-1980, 1982, revised 1995, reprint 2000, Pensacola Historical Society, Pensacola, Florida.

Deagan, Kathleen, Archaeology at 8SJ34, The Nombre de Dios Mission / La Leche Shrine Site, St. Augustine: Summary report on the 1934-2011 excavations, Miscellaneous Reports in Archaeology No. 62, 2012, Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.

Deagan, Kathleen, Investigating the 1565 Menéndez Defenses: Field Report on the 2011-2015 Excavations at the Fountain of Youth Park Site, St. Augustine, Miscellaneous Papers in Archaeology No. 62, 2016, Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.

Deagan, Kathleen, and Darcie MacMahon, Fort Mose: Colonial America's Black Fortress of Freedom, 1995, University Press of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.

de Quesada, Alejandro M., A History of Florida Forts: Florida's Lonely Outposts, 2006, The History Press, Charleston, South Carolina.

Eastman, Joel W., A Visit to Fort Dade in Tampa Bay, Florida, in Coast Defense Study Group Journal, Vol. 7, No. 2, May 1993.

England, Howard S., Fort Zachary Taylor: A Sleeping Giant Awakens, 1977, self-published.

Fleck, Michael P., The Archaeological History of the Sixteenth-Century French Fort Caroline in Northeast Florida Master's thesis, March 2017, Harvard University Extension School.

Florida Association of Museums, Florida Civil War Heritage Trail, undated (2011).

Florida Division of Recreation and Parks, Fort Clinch State Park brochure, 2004.

Florida Division of Recreation and Parks, Fort Clinch State Park, History of Fort Clinch, 1847-1945 handout, undated.

Florida Division of Recreation and Parks, Fort Foster Historic Site brochure, 2003.

Florida Division of Recreation and Parks, Fort Mose Historic State Park brochure, 2010.

Florida Division of Recreation and Parks, Fort Zachary Taylor Historic State Park brochure, 2002.

Florida Division of Recreation and Parks, Fort Zachary Taylor, Fort Zachary Taylor Self-Guided Tour brochure, undated.

Florida Division of Recreation and Parks, San Marcos de Apalache Historic State Park brochure, 2002.

Fort Christmas Historical Society, History of Fort Christmas, 2000, Fort Christmas, Florida.

Freire, Pedro Cruz, Fort San Carlos de Barrancas: Power and Control in the Gulf of Mexico and Southern America, in From Colonies to Countries in the North Caribbean: Military Engineers in the Development of Cities and Territories (ed. Pedro Luengo-Gutiérrez and Gene A. Smith), 2016, Cambridge Scholars Publishing, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom.

Fretwell, Jacqueline K. (editor), Civil War Times in St. Augustine, 1986, 1988 reprint, Florida Classics Library, Port Salerno, Florida.

Gaines, William C., The Coast Artillery at Pensacola Bay, 1898-1946, in Coast Defense Study Group Journal, Vol. 8, No. 1, Feb. 1994.

Gaines, William C., The Coastal and Harbor Defenses of Key West, Florida, in Coast Defense Study Group Journal, Vol. 7, No. 4, Nov. 1993.

Gaines, William C., The Defenses of Cumberland Sound, 1738-1900, in The Coast Defense Journal, Vol. 17, No. 4, Nov. 2003.

Gaines, William C., Defenses of Florida's St. Johns River, 1898-1944, in The Coast Defense Journal, Vol. 18, No. 1, Feb. 2004.

Gaines, William C., The Temporary Harbor Defenses of Fort Lauderdale, Florida, 1942-1944, in The Coast Defense Study Group Journal, Vol. 9, No. 2, May 1995.

Gaines, William C., The World War II Temporary Harbor Defenses of Tampa, 1942-1944, in The Coast Defense Journal, Vol. 17, No. 1, Feb. 2003.

Gjessing, Fredrick C., and John C. Garner, Jr., Historic Structure Report - Architectural Data Section, Advanced Redoubt of Fort Barrancas, Gulf Islands National Seashore, Pensacola, Florida, 1975, National Park Service, Southeast Regional Office.

Hach, Steve, Cold War in South Florida: Historic Resource Study, 2004, Cultural Resources Division, National Park Service, Southeast Region, Atlanta, Georgia.

Hall, Maggi, and the St. Augustine Historical Society, St. Augustine, 2002, Arcadia Publishing, Charleston, South Carolina.

Hammersten, Susan (editor), An Archeological Overview and Assessment of Gulf Islands National Seashore, 1989, National Park Service, Southeast Archeological Center.

Hann, John H., and Bonnie G. McEwan, The Apalachee Indians and Mission San Luis, 1998, University Press of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.

James, Russell D., Coastal Defense in Florida During the Mexican War, adapted from Too Late for Blood: Florida Volunteers in the Mexican War, in The Coast Defense Journal, Vol. 16, No. 3, Aug. 2002.

Jameson, Colin G., History of East Martello Tower, Key West, 1992 (3rd edition revised), The Key West Art and Historical Society, Inc., Key West, Florida.

Kalesnik, Frank L., Caged Tigers: Native American Prisoners in Florida, 1875-1888, in The Journal of America's Military Past, Vol. XXVIII, No. 1, Spring/Summer 2001.

Key West Art and Historical Society, The East Martello Museum and Gallery: A Self-Guided Tour brochure, undated.

The Key West Garden Club, History of West Martello Tower, Joe Allen Garden Center, Key West, Florida booklet, undated.

The Key West Garden Club, The Key West Garden Club and West Martello Tower brochure and map, undated.

Knetsch, Joe, Florida's Seminole Wars 1817-1858, 2003, Arcadia Publishing, Charleston, South Carolina.

Knetsch, Joe, Fort Cross on Cape Sable: Controlling Trade Between Cuba and the Seminoles in the Third Seminole War, in The Journal of America's Military Past, Vol. XXIX, No. 1, Spring/Summer 2002.

Knetsch, Joe, Fort Drane, 1836-1837: A Moment of Fame in the Whirlwind of War, in The Journal of America's Military Past, Vol. XXXI, No. 2, Fall 2005.

Kross, Peter, Seventy-one-year-old George Matthews was an unlikely point man for covert American efforts to annex Florida in the early 1800s, in Military Heritage Magazine, October 2010.

Landers, Jane, Fort Mose - Gracia Real de Santa Teresa de Mose: A Free Black Town in Spanish Colonial Florida, 1992, St. Augustine Historical Society, St. Augustine, Florida.

Mabelitini, Brian, The Confederate Fortification of the Apalachicola River, 1861-1865, in Pensacola and Northwest Florida History Illustrated, Fall 2013.

Mabelitini, Charles Brian, The Hammock Landing Battery and the Confederate Defenses of the Apalachicola River, Florida, Masters thesis, 2012, Department of Anthropology, College of Arts and Sciences, University of West Florida.

Mabelitini, Brian, Union Defences of the City of Pensacola, Florida (1862-1865), undated report.

Mahon, John K., History of the Second Seminole War, 1835-1842, Revised Edition, 1967, 1985, University Press of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.

Manucy, Albert C., The Building of Castillo de San Marcos, Interpretive Series History No. 1, 1959, National Park Service, Washington.

Manucy, Albert C., The History of Castillo de San Marcos and Fort Matanzas, From Contemporary Narratives and Letters, Source Book Series No. 3, 1945 (reprint), 1959 (reprint), National Park Service, Washington.

Manucy, Albert C., Pages from the Past: A Pictorial History of Fort Jefferson, 1999, Florida National Parks and Monuments Association, Inc., Homestead, Florida.

Manuel, Dale A., Pensacola Bay: A Military History, 2004, Arcadia Publishing, Charleston, South Carolina.

Mayhew, Dean R., Defending Southeast Florida, in Coast Defense Study Group Journal, Vol. 7, No. 1, Feb. 1993.

McCall, Bruce Ed., Coastal Defense of Tampa Bay, in The Coast Defense Study Group Journal, Vol. 10, No. 3, Aug. 1996.

McCall, Bruce Ed., Remains of the Coast Defenses of Tampa Bay, March 1996, in The CDSG Newsletter, Aug. 1996.

McEwan, Bonnie G. (editor), The Spanish Missions of La Florida, 1993, University Press of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.

Mikell, Gregory A., Archaeological Signature of a U.S. Army Cavalry or Mounted Infantry Camp, Naval Air Station Pensacola, in The Florida Anthropologist, Vol. 63, No. 2, June 2010.

Milanich, Jerald T., Laboring in the Fields of the Lord: Spanish Missions and Southeastern Indians, 1999, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington.

Muir, Thomas, Jr., and David P. Ogden, The Fort Pickens Story, 1989, Pensacola Historical Society, Pensacola, Florida.

National Park Service, Cultural Landscapes Inventory, Castillo de San Marcos and Fort Matanzas National Monuments, Saint Augustine, Florida, 2020.

National Park Service, Castillo de San Marcos and Fort Matanzas National Monuments Cultural Landscape Report, 2020, Southeast Regional Office, Cultural Resources, Partnerships and Science Division, Atlanta, Georgia.

National Park Service, Historic Structure Report for Fort Matanzas National Monument, St. John's County, Florida, 1980, Southeast/Southwest Team, Historic Preservation Branch, Denver Service Center, Denver, Colorado.

National Park Service, Castillo de San Marcos National Monument, Handbook 149, 1993, Division of Publications, Washington.

National Park Service, Castillo de San Marcos National Monument brochures, 1961 (revised), 1980 (1985 reprint), 2003.

National Park Service, Castillo de San Marcos NM, undated handouts: Self-Guided Map; Self-Guided Walking Tour (various versions); Don Manuel de Cendoya (Governor of Florida 1669-1673); Thanksgiving Day; The Siege of 1702: November 9-30 December, 1702; The Change of Flags; British East Florida, the 14th Colony; Fort St. Mark: British East Florida, the 14th Colony (2017); British Night Watch: Florida during the American Revolution; Military Music; Seminole Indians (imprisoned); Territorial Florida: Second Seminole War, 1835-1842; Plains Indians (imprisoned); Apache Indians (imprisoned); Sand Creek Massacre - From Sand Creek to the Atlantic Ocean: Cheyenne and Arapaho Prisoners in Florida; Florida in World War II.

National Park Service, Dry Tortugas National Park brochure, 2002.

National Park Service, Fort Caroline National Memorial brochure, 2003.

National Park Service, Fort Caroline NM, Ribault Monument handout, undated.

National Park Service, Fort Jefferson National Monument brochure, 1992.

National Park Service, Fort King National Historic Landmark, Ocala, Florida: Special Resource Study and Final Environmental Impact Statement, 2006, Southeast Region, Atlanta, Georgia.

National Park Service, Fort Marion and Fort Matanzas National Monuments, Florida booklet, 1940.

National Park Service, Fort Marion and Fort Matanzas National Monuments, Florida brochure, 1942.

National Park Service, Fort Matanzas National Monument brochures, 1992, 2002, 2013.

National Park Service, Fort Matanzas NM, handouts: Coquina - The Rock that Saved St. Augustine (1999); Barrier Islands - The Changing Landscape of Matanzas (undated); Fort Mose (2003); The Spanish Flag (2000).

National Park Service, Gulf Islands National Seashore brochures, 2004, 2013.

National Park Service, Gulf Islands NS, handouts: Apache Prisoners at Fort Pickens (2012); Naval Live Oaks (2013, undated (2017 ?)).

National Park Service, Gulf Islands NS, Advanced Redoubt of Fort Barrancas handouts, 2004, 2011.

National Park Service, Gulf Islands NS, Coast Artillery Self-guided Tour booklet, 2014.

National Park Service, Gulf Islands NS, Fort Barrancas handouts, undated, 2005, 2010, 2017.

National Park Service, Gulf Islands NS, Fort Pickens handouts, 2016, 2019.

National Park Service, Gulf Islands NS, Fort Pickens Self-guided Tour booklets, undated, 2011.

National Park Service, Gulf Islands NS, Perdido Key handout, 2012.

National Park Service, Gulf Islands NS, Santa Rosa handout, 2009.

National Park Service, Timucuan Ecological and Historic Preserve brochure, 2006.

National Park Service, Timucuan EHP, undated handouts: The Huguenots; St. Johns Bluff; "People of the Shell Mounds"; British East Florida, 1763-1783; The River War: The Timucuan Preserve in the Civil War; St. Johns Bluff: Changing Times, Changing Flags; Trails Map.

Ofeldt, Frank A., III, Fort Clinch, 2017, Arcadia Publishing, Charleston, South Carolina.

Ofeldt, Frank A., III, Fort Clinch, Fernandina and the Civil War, 2020, The History Press, Charleston, South Carolina.

Ogden, David P., The 13th Coast Artillery at Pensacola: The Fort Barrancas Oral History Project, 1987 (revised), National Park Service, Gulf Islands National Seashore, Florida District.

Ogden, David P., Frontline on the Home Front: The 13th Coast Artillery at Pensacola, 1930-1947, 1991, Eastern National Park and Monument Association.

Ogden, David P., Military Life in Pensacola in the 1930s and '40s: The Fort Barrancas Oral History Project, 1987, National Park Service.

Ogden, David P., The Fort Barrancas Story, 1997, reprint 2008, Eastern National Parks Association.

Orange County Parks and Recreation Division, Fort Christmas Historical Park brochure, undated.

Orange County Parks and Recreation Division, Fort Christmas Historical Park: Historical Structures brochure, 2000.

Panamerican Consultants, Inc., Spanish-American War Battery Cultural Landscape Report, Timucuan Ecological and Historic Preserve, Florida (Draft), December 2020, National Park Service, Interior Region 2, Cultural Resources, Partnerships and Science Division, Atlanta, Georgia.

Panamerican Consultants, Inc., and Wiss, Janney, Elstner Associates, Inc., Battery Cullum - Sevier Historic Structure Report, Gulf Islands National Seashore, Pensacola Bay, Florida, 2018, National Park Service, Southeast Regional Office, Cultural Resources, Partnerships and Science Division, Atlanta, Georgia.

Parsons, Jeffrey L., Mounting of Historic Ordnance at Fort Pickens and Fort Barrancas, Gulf Islands National Seashore, 1993, National Park Service, Gulf Islands National Seashore, Pensacola, Florida.

Pearce, George F., The U.S. Navy in Pensacola: From Sailing Ships to Naval Aviation (1825-1930), 1980, University Presses of Florida, Pensacola, Florida.

Pinellas County Park Department, Fort De Soto Historic Area brochure, undated.

Pinellas County Park Department, Fort De Soto Park Quartermaster Storehouse Museum brochure, undated.

Pinellas County Park Department, History of Fort De Soto Park booklet, undated.

Prendergast, Eric, and Armando Anzellini, Archaeological Investigations at Project Area I, Downtown Tampa, Hillsborough County, Florida, SPP Archaeological Report No. 1, May 2017, Strategic Property Partners, Tampa, Florida.

Reid, Thomas, America's Fortress: A History of Fort Jefferson, Dry Tortugas, Florida, 2006, University Press of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.

Roberts Thompson, Amanda D., The Archaeology and History of Fort Center During the Second and Third Seminole Wars, in The Florida Anthropologist, Vol. 67, No. 1, March 2014.

St. Photios Greek Orthodox National Shrine, The New Smyrna Colony: The Story of the First Greek Colony brochure, undated.

Snell, Charles W., Special History Study, A History of the Naval Live Oak Reservation Program, 1794-1880: A Forgotten Chapter in the History of American Conservation, Gulf Islands National Seashore, Florida/Mississippi, 1983, National Park Service, Denver Service Center, Denver, Colorado.

Suddeth, Frank, and David Shepard, Colonial Florida's Spanish Bluecoats, 1720's - 1760's brochure, undated, Castillo de San Marcos, St. Augustine, Florida.

U.S. Army, Harbor Defenses of Pensacola, Fort Pickens, Battery Worth Emplacement Book, 1942.

U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Historic American Buildings Survey: Addendum to U.S. Naval Air Station, Marine Barracks (Building No. 18) (Pensacola), November 2005.

U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, National Register of Historic Places Inventory-Nomination Form: Bateria de San Antonio (Pensacola), 1977.

U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, National Register of Historic Places Inventory-Nomination Form: Castillo de San Marcos (St. Augustine), 1976.

U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, National Register of Historic Places Inventory-Nomination Form: Fort Matanzas (St. Augustine), 1976.

U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, National Register of Historic Places Inventory-Nomination Form: Fort Pickens (Pensacola), 1972.

U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, National Register of Historic Places Inventory-Nomination Form: Perdido Key Historic District (Foster's Bank/Fort McRee) (Pensacola), 1980.

U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, National Register of Historic Places Registration Form: First American Road in Florida (Andrew Jackson Trail) (Gulf Breeze), 1998.

U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, National Register of Historic Places Registration Form: Castillo de San Marcos (St. Augustine), 1996.

U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, National Register of Historic Places Registration Form: Naval Live Oaks Reservation (Gulf Breeze), 1998.

Vaughan, Tom, Fort DeSoto: H.D. of Tampa Bay, in Coast Defense Study Group News, Vol. 4, No. 4, Nov. 1990.

Whitley, Thomas G., and Ramie A. Gougeon, Phase I Historical Resources Survey: Proposed Expansion of the Fort Barrancas National Cemetery, Naval Air Station Pensacola, Escambia County, Florida, 2002, prepared by Brockington and Associates, Inc., for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Mobile District, Mobile, Alabama.

Wiss, Janney, Elstner Associates, Inc., Battery 234 CRF/BCS Tower Historic Structure Report, Gulf Islands National Seashore, Pensacola Bay, Florida, 2015, National Park Service, Southeast Regional Office, Cultural Resources Division, Atlanta, Georgia.

Wiss, Janney, Elstner Associates, Inc., Battery Langdon Historic Structure Report, Gulf Islands National Seashore, Pensacola Bay, Florida, 2015, National Park Service, Southeast Regional Office, Cultural Resources, Partnerships and Science Division, Atlanta, Georgia.

Worth, John E., The Luna Expedition: An Overview from the Documents, paper presented at the 50th Annual Conference of the Society for Historical Archaeology, Fort Worth, Texas, January 7, 2017.

Worth, John E., The Luna Settlement in Archaeological and Documentary Perspective, paper presented at the 37th Annual Gulf South History and Humanities Conference, Pensacola, Florida, October 17-19, 2019.

Worth, John E., Preliminary Observations on the Archaeological Assemblage of the 1559-1561 Tristán de Luna Settlement, paper presented at the 49th Annual Conference of the Society for Historical Archaeology, Washington, D.C., January 9, 2016.

Worth, John E., Rediscovering Pensacola's Lost Spanish Missions, paper presented at the 65th Annual Meeting of the Southeastern Archaeological Conference, Charlotte, North Carolina, November 15, 2008.

Worth, John E., and Elizabeth D. Benchley, Janet R. Lloyd, Jennifer Melcher, The Discovery and Exploration of Tristán de Luna's 1559-1561 Settlement on Pensacola Bay, paper presented at the 69th Annual Meeting of the Florida Anthropological Society, Jacksonville, Florida, May 6, 2017.

Wright, Newell O., and Tegan Swain, Mathilda Cox, Uncovering the British Colonial Past in Northwest Florida, in Cultural Resources Management Bulletin No. 13, 1997, National Park Service, Washington.


GUANTANAMO BAY

Floyd, Dale E., Guantanamo Bay's Army Fortifications, 1898-1917, in FORTRESS, Issue No. 6, Aug. 1990, Beaufort Publishing Ltd., Liphook, Hants, United Kingdom.

Murphy, M. E., The History of Guantanamo Bay 1494-1964, 1953, updated and revised 1964, self-published (?) manuscript (transcription from internet).


LOUISIANA

Louisiana Atlas and Gazetteer, 2003 (2nd edition), DeLorme, Yarmouth, Maine.

Cane River National Heritage Area, Cane River National Heritage Trail brochure/map, undated.

Cane River National Heritage Area, Historic Natchitoches brochure/map, undated.

Chartrand, René, French Fortresses in North America 1535-1763, 2005, Osprey Publishing Ltd., Botley, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Dawdy, Shannon Lee, and Christopher N. Matthews, Final Report of Archaeological and Historical Investigations of Camp Parapet, a Civil War Site in Jefferson Parish, Louisiana (redacted version - Chapter Three "History of the Camp Parapet Area", and References), August 1998, Greater New Orleans Archaeology Program, College of Urban and Public Affairs, University of New Orleans, New Orleans, Louisiana, for the Jefferson Parish Historical Commission.

Frazer, Robert W., Forts of the West: Military Forts and Presidios and Posts Commonly Called Forts West of the Mississippi River to 1898, 1965, 1972, University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, Oklahoma.

Garvey, Joan B., and Mary Lou Widmer, Beautiful Crescent: A History of New Orleans, 1982, 1984, 1988 (Third Edition), Garmer Press, Inc., New Orleans, Louisiana.

Gauthreaux, Alan G., Hell on the Mississippi: The Confederate Defense of Forts Jackson and St. Philip, in Civil War Times Magazine, October 2006.

Gilmore, Kathleen, and Vergil E. Noble, Archeological Testing at Fort St. Leon (16PL35), Plaquemines Parish, Louisiana, Contributions in Archaeology No. 2, May 1983, Institute of Applied Sciences, North Texas State University, Denton, Texas.

Grice, Gary K., History of Weather Observing at Fort Jesup, Louisiana 1827-1845, February 2005, for NOAA Midwestern Regional Climate Center.

Greene, Jerome A., Historic Resource Study: Chalmette Unit, Jean Lafitte National Historical Park and Preserve, Louisiana, 1985, National Park Service, Denver Service Center, Denver, Colorado.

Greene, Jerome A., Special History Study: The Defense of New Orleans, 1718-1900, Jean Lafitte National Historical Park, Louisiana, 1982, National Park Service, Denver Service Center, Denver, Colorado.

Hearn, Chester G., The Capture of New Orleans, 1862, 1995, Louisiana State University Press, Baton Rouge, Louisiana.

Huber, Leonard V., The Battle of New Orleans: New Orleans as It Was in 1814-1815, 1989, 1994, 2011, Louisiana Landmarks Society, Pelican Publishing Company, Inc., Gretna, Louisiana.

Jefferson Parish Historical Commission, Camp Parapet Powder Magazine brochure, undated (2010 ?).

Louisiana State Parks, Fort St. Jean Baptiste State Historic Site tour guide booklet, undated.

Louisiana State Parks, Welcome to Port Hudson Battlefield, A Louisiana State Historic Site brochure, undated.

Manuel, Dale A., The Bombardment of Fort St. Philip, in the Coast Defense Journal, Vol. 20, No. 3, Aug. 2006.

Manuel, Dale A., Fort Livingston: The Lonely Sentinal of Barataria, in The Coast Defense Study Group Journal, Vol. 14, No. 4, Nov. 2000.

Manuel, Dale A., Fort Petite Coquilles, Louisiana: Barring the Door to New Orleans, in The Coast Defense Journal, Vol. 17, No. 2, May 2003.

Manuel, Dale A., Fort St. John, Louisiana, in The Coast Defense Journal, Vol. 16, No. 2, May 2002.

Manuel, Dale A., Fort St. Leon and the Fortifications at English Turn, Louisiana, in The Coast Defense Journal, Vol. 17, No. 3, Aug. 2003.

Manuel, Dale A., The Fortifications at Balize, Louisiana, in The Coast Defense Journal, Vol. 17, No. 3, Aug. 2003.

Morganza Restoration Association, Morganza, Louisiana: A Brief History brochure, undated.

National Park Service, Chalmette National Historical Park brochures, 1959, 1970.

National Park Service, Chalmette National Cemetery brochure, undated.

National Park Service, Jean Lafitte National Historical Park brochure, undated.

National Park Service, Jean Lafitte National Historical Park and Preserve map, undated.

National Park Service, Jean Lafitte NHP&P, Jean Lafitte: History and Mystery handout, 2015.

Peña, Christopher G., Fiasco at Fort Butler, in America's Civil War Magazine, November 2000.

Pickles, Tim, New Orleans 1815: Andrew Jackson crushes the British, 1994 (9th printing 2008, digital reprint 2014), Osprey Publishing Ltd., Botley, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Pierson, Michael D., Mutiny at Fort Jackson: The Untold Story of the Fall of New Orleans, 2008, The University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.

Port Hudson State Historic Site, Admiral Farragut's naval assault on Port Hudson, Louisiana, 1863 brochure, undated.

Port Hudson State Historic Site, C.S.S. Arkansas and Her Brief Gallant History brochure, undated.

Port Hudson State Historic Site, Hiking Trail Map for Port Hudson State Historic Site's Trail System brochure, undated.

Powles, James M., Union Fiasco at Head of the Passes, in America's Civil War Magazine, March 2001.

Reilly, Robin, The British at the Gates: The New Orleans Campaign in the War of 1812, 1974, 2002, Robin Brass Studio, Inc., Toronto, Ontario.

Remini, Robert V., The Battle of New Orleans: Andrew Jackson and America's First Military Victory, 1999, Viking (Penguin Putnam Inc.), New York City.

Ries, Maurice, The Mississippi Fort, Called Fort De La Boulaye, reprinted from The Louisiana Historical Quarterly, Vol. 19, No. 4, October 1936.

Roush, J. Fred, Chalmette National Historical Park, Handbook 29, 1958, reprint 1961, National Park Service, Washington.

Sakurai, Gail, The Louisiana Purchase, 1998, Children's Press, Danbury, Connecticut.

Smith, Bolling W., The Fire Control Puzzle at New Orleans, in Coast Defense Journal, Vol. 23, No. 3, Aug. 2009.

U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, National Register of Historic Places Inventory-Nomination Form: Chalmette Unit of Jean Lafitte National Historical Park (Historic District) (St. Bernard Parish), 1987.

Vaughan, Tom, Fort Jackson Trip Report, in Coast Defense Study Group News, Vol. 4, No. 3, Aug. 1990.

Zink, Robert D., Battery Bienvenue, Louisiana, in Coast Defense Study Group Journal, Vol. 8, No. 1, Feb. 1994.

Zink, Robert D., Forts of "Wherever" #18 - Forts of the U.S. Gulf Coast, Part II - Mississippi thru Texas, in Coast Defense Study Group Journal, Vol. 7, No. 1, Feb. 1993.


MISSISSIPPI

Mississippi Atlas and Gazetteer, 2010 (4th edition), DeLorme, Yarmouth, Maine.

Ann Beha Associates, Inc., Natchez National Historical Park, Natchez, Mississippi: Historic Resource Study, 1997, National Park Service, Southeast Region, Atlanta, Georgia.

Ballard, Michael B., The Campaign for Vicksburg, 1996, National Park Civil War Series, Eastern National.

Bearss, Edwin C., Historic Resource Study, Ship Island, Harrison County, Mississippi, Gulf Islands National Seashore, Florida/Mississippi, 1984, National Park Service, Denver Service Center, Denver, Colorado.

Bearss, Edwin C., Historic Structure Report: Administrative and Historical Data Sections, Fort on Ship Island (Fort Massachusetts) 1857-1935, Gulf Islands National Seashore, Mississippi, 1984, National Park Service, Denver Service Center, Denver, Colorado.

Bearss, Edwin C., Protecting Sherman's Lifeline: The Battles of Brices Cross Roads and Tupelo 1864, 1971 (1972), National Park Service, Office of Publications, Washington.

Blitz, John H., and C. Baxter Mann, Fisherfolk, Farmers and Frenchmen: Archaeological Explorations on the Mississippi Gulf Coast, 2000, Archaeological Report Number 30, Mississippi Department of Archives and History, Jackson, Mississippi.

Burkett, H. Clark, Fort Washington: The Forgotten Fort of the Mississippi Territory, in The Journal of America's Military Past, Vol. XXVII, No. 3, Winter 2001.

Carter, Samuel, III, The Final Fortress: The Campaign for Vicksburg 1862-1863, 1980, St. Martin's Press, New York.

Christensen, Ann, History of Ship Island, 1973 (Revised 1974), National Park Service.

Debo, Angie, The Rise and Fall of the Choctaw Republic, 1934, 1961 (2nd edition), Red River Books, University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, Oklahoma.

DeRosier, Arthur H., Jr., The Removal of the Choctaw Indians, 1970 (reprint 1999), The University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, Tennessee.

Dugan, John J., and William K. Kay, Notes on the Preservation of the 15-Inch Rodman Gun, Top Carriage, and Chasis, Ship Island, Gulf Islands (Miss.) National Seashore, 1980, National Park Service.

Everhart, William C., Vicksburg National Military Park, Handbook 21, 1954, National Park Service, Washington.

Hankinson, Alan, Vicksburg 1863: Grant Clears the Mississippi, 1993, Osprey Publishing Ltd., London, United Kingdom.

Illinois Central Railroad, Historic Vicksburg: The Story of the Campaign, Siege and Defense of Vicksburg and of the Commands, Union and Confederate, engaged therein. Compiled from the Tablet Inscriptions in the Vicksburg National Military Park souvenir booklet, 1909.

Lincecum, Gideon, Pushmataha: A Choctaw Leader and his People, 1904, 1906, reprint 2004, Fire Ant Books, The University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa, Alabama.

Kanze, Edward, The Fort Massachusetts Story, Gulf Islands National Seashore, Mississippi, 2001, Eastern National.

Manuel, Dale A., Fort Maurepas, Vieux Biloxi, in the Coast Defense Journal, Vol. 20, No. 3, Aug. 2006.

Mississippi Division of Tourism Development, The Civil War travel guide, undated.

Morris, Jacqueline Sue, Made Glorious Summer, The Family of My Father: Hugo Ernestus Krebs of Neumagen, Germany, July 2000, self-published.

National Park Service, Brices Cross Roads - Tupelo National Battlefield Sites brochures, 1991, 2000 (2002 print).

National Park Service, Gulf Islands NS, Fort Massachusetts handout, 1991.

National Park Service, Gulf Islands NS, Fort Massachusetts handout, undated.

National Park Service, Gulf Islands NS, Louisiana Native Guards handout, undated (2011 ?).

National Park Service, Gulf Islands NS, Mississippi Areas: Bayous, Islands, Wildlife, and More booklet, undated.

National Park Service, Gulf Islands NS, Visiting Mississippi's Barrier Islands handout, 2013.

National Park Service, Gulf Islands NS, West Ship Island handout, 2012.

National Park Service, Cultural Landscapes Inventory: Fort Rosalie, Natchez National Historical Park, 2019.

National Park Service, Historic Structure Report: Old Fort Rosalie Gift Shop, Natchez National Historical Park, Natchez, Mississippi, 2006, Historical Architecture, Cultural Resources Division, Southeast Regional Office, Atlanta, Georgia.

National Park Service, Natchez Trace National Scenic Trail brochure, 2011.

National Park Service, Natchez Trace Parkway brochures, 1972, 1984.

National Park Service, Natchez Trace Parkway, Emerald Mound brochure, 2013.

National Park Service, Natchez Trace Parkway, Meriwether Lewis brochure, 2013.

National Park Service, Natchez Trace Parkway, Mount Locust Inn and Plantation brochure, 2013.

National Park Service, U.S.S. Cairo: The Story of a Civil War Gunboat booklet, 1971.

National Park Service, Vicksburg National Military Park brochures, 1963, 1978.

National Park Service, Vicksburg and the Opening of the Mississippi River, 1862-63, Handbook 137, 1986, Division of Publications, Washington.

National Park Service, Historic American Engineering Record, Highways in Harmony: Vicksburg National Military Park Tour Roads brochure, 2000.

Reeves, Carolyn Keller (ed.), The Choctaw Before Removal, 1985, University Press of Mississippi, Jackson, Mississippi.

U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, National Register of Historic Places Inventory-Nomination Form: Fort Massachusetts (Ship Island), 1971.

U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, National Register of Historic Places Inventory-Nomination Form: Vicksburg National Military Park, 1977.

U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, National Register of Historic Places Registration Form: French Warehouse Site (Ship Island), 1991.

U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, National Register of Historic Places Registration Form: Old Natchez Trace and Choctaw Agency Site (Madison County), 1995.

Wells, Samuel J., and Roseanna Tubby (eds.), After Removal: The Choctaw in Mississippi, 1986, University Press of Mississippi, Jackson, Mississippi.


PUERTO RICO

Abrams, Betsy Lopez, The Forts (Los Fuertes) - San Juan, Puerto Rico, and St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands, undated, Papel, Inc., Santurce, Puerto Rico.

Alonso, María M., and Milagros Flores, The Eighteenth Century Caribbean and The British Attack on Puerto Rico in 1797, with Chronicles, 1997, National Park Service.

Berkowitz, Joan, and others, The Fortifications of San Juan National Historic Site: Historic Structure Report, Volume I, Summaries, 1991, National Park Service, Southeast Regional Office.

Berkowitz, Joan, and others, The Fortifications of San Juan National Historic Site: Historic Structure Report, Volume II, El Fuerte de San Cristóbal, 1991, National Park Service, Southeast Regional Office.

Berkowitz, Joan, and others, The Fortifications of San Juan National Historic Site: Historic Structure Report, Volume III, Castillo de San Felipe del Morro, 1991, National Park Service, Southeast Regional Office.

Caribe Tourist Promotions, Inc., Historic Old San Juan, 1971 (3rd edition), Carolina, Puerto Rico.

Foulds, Eliot H., and Alexandra von Bieberstein, Cultural Landscape Report for the San Cristóbal Outworks, San Juan National Historic Site, San Juan, Puerto Rico, 2015, National Park Service, Olmstead Center for Landscape Preservation, Boston, Massachusetts.

National Geographic Maps, Puerto Rico Adventure Map, 2011, Evergreen, Colorado.

National Park Service, The Forts of Old San Juan, Handbook 151, 1996, Division of Publications, Washington.

National Park Service, Historic Places in Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands: A National Register of Historic Places Travel Itinerary brochure, undated (2008).

National Park Service, San Juan National Historic Site brochures, 1985, 1989.

National Park Service, San Juan NHS, Welcome to San Juan National Historic Site handout, undated.

National Park Service, San Juan NHS, Castillo San Cristobal Guide pamphlet, 2007.

National Park Service, Special Resource Study / Boundary Study: Fort San Gerónimo and Other Related Resources, San Juan, Puerto Rico, 2016.

Negroni, Héctor A., Historia Militar de Puerto Rico, 1992, Sociedad Estatal Quinto Centenario, San Juan, Puerto Rico.

San Juan National Historic Site, El Viejo San Juan handout, undated.

Sloan, Kim, A New World: England's first view of America, 2007, The British Museum Press, London, England, United Kingdom.

United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service, National Register of Historic Places Inventory-Nomination Form: San Juan National Historic Site, 1973.

United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service, National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings: La Fortaleza (San Juan), 1963.

Vales, Luis E. González, and Milagros Flores, et al, San Juan: the city that grew beyond its walls, 2005, National Park Service, Fort San Cristóbal, Old San Juan, Puerto Rico.

Van Atten, Suzanne, Moon Handbooks: Puerto Rico, 2006 (1st Edition), Avalon Travel Publishing, Emeryville, California.

WLA Studio, El Cañuelo, San Juan National Historic Site: Historic Structure Report, 2018, prepared for National Park Service, Southeast Regional Office, Cultural Resources, Partnerships, and Science Division, Atlanta, Georgia.

Zink, Robert D., Forts of Everywhere - Harbor Defenses of San Juan and Roosevelt Roads, in Coast Defense Study Group News, Vol. 6, No. 1, Feb. 1992.


U.S. VIRGIN ISLANDS

United States Virgin Islands Visitors' Guide 1992, U.S. Virgin Islands Division of Tourism, Charlotte Amalie, St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands.

2007 Virgin Islands Map (U.S. & British) (3rd edition), Borch GmbH, Wörthsee, Germany.

Gjessing, F.C., Observations on the Architecture at Reef Bay Estate and Fortsberg Hill, St. John, Virgin Islands, 1954.

Hatch, Charles E., Jr., Historic Resource Study: St. John Island ("the quiet place"), Virgin Islands National Park, 1972, National Park Service, Denver Service Center, Denver, Colorado.

Henighan, Susanna, Moon Handbooks: Virgin Islands, 2006 (3rd Edition), Avalon Travel Publishing, Berkeley, California.

Larsen, Lief Calundann, The Danish Colonization of St. John, 1718-1733, 1986, Virgin Islands Resource Management Cooperative, St. Thomas.

National Park Service, Christiansted National Historic Site brochure, 1987.

National Park Service, Classified Structure Field Inventory Report: Lind Point Fort (Cruz Bay), 1981.

National Park Service, Salt River Bay National Park and Ecological Preserve informational handout, 1992.

National Park Service, U.S. Virgin Islands, Handbook 157, 1999 (2001 reprint), Division of Publications, Washington.

National Park Service, Virgin Islands National Park brochures, 1987, 1993.

National Park Service, Virgin Islands NP, Trail Guide for Safe Hiking brochure, undated.

Pariser, Harry S., Explore the Virgin Islands, 2009 (Seventh Edition), Manatee Press, San Francisco.

United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service, National Register of Historic Places Inventory-Nomination Form: Christiansted Historic District (St. Croix), 1976.

United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service, National Register of Historic Places Registration Form: Fort Christian (St. Thomas), 2000.


Eastern U.S. Forts