American Forts Network

GULF COAST - CARIBBEAN ISLANDS

Bibliography of Works Consulted

This is a master listing of works consulted in my research on American Forts of the Gulf Coast of the United States. Additional information was gathered from many third-party websites, which will not be listed here. Websites are linked within the actual fort listings. Additional information and material was also sent in by email and regular postal from many people around the country, and may be noted as such within the actual fort listings, or on the yearly "update" pages.

Where a certain source was used for more than one state, it will be listed here only once, either under GENERAL REFERENCES, or under the first (or major) state referenced. Citations in blue indicate library sources that are not in my personal collection.


GENERAL REFERENCES

Sources previously listed under SOUTHEASTERN GENERAL REFERENCES will not be repeated here


Coker, William C. (ed.), The Military Presence on the Gulf Coast, 1978, Proceedings of the Gulf Coast History and Humanities Conference, Vol. VII.

Field, Ron, American Civil War Fortifications: The Mississippi and River Forts, 2007, Osprey Publishing Ltd., Botley, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Gaines, William C., Temporary Harbor Defenses in the Southern Defense Command, 1942-1944, in The Coast Defense Journal, Vol. 16, No. 1, Feb. 2002.

Gilbert, Ed, Frontier Militiamen in the War of 1812: Southwestern Frontier, 2008, Osprey Publishing Ltd., Botley, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Hudson, Charles, and Carmen Chaves Tesser (eds.), The Forgotten Centuries: Indians and Europeans in the American South, 1521-1704, 1994, The University of Georgia Press, Athens, Georgia.

Judge, Joseph, Between Columbus and Jamestown: Exploring Our Forgotten Century, in National Geographic Magazine, Vol. 173, No. 3, March 1988, National Geographic Society, Washington.

Miles, Jim, A River Unvexed: A History and Tour Guide of the Campaign for the Mississippi River, 1994, Rutledge Hill Press, Inc., Nashville, Tennessee.

de Quesada, Alejandro M., Spanish Colonial Fortifications in North America 1565-1822, 2010, Osprey Publishing Ltd., Botley, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Smith, Joseph B., The Plot to Steal Florida: James Madison's Phony War, 1983, Arbor House Publishing Co., New York.

Zink, Robert D., Forts of "Wherever" #17 - Forts of the U.S. Gulf Coast, Part I - Key West Through Mobile Bay, in Coast Defense Study Group News, Vol. 6, No. 4, Nov. 1992.

Zink, Robert D., Some Gulf Coast Temporary Harbor Defense Activities, 1943-44, in The Coast Defense Study Group Journal, Vol. 10, No. 3, Aug. 1996.


ALABAMA

Alabama Atlas and Gazetteer, 2006 (3rd edition), DeLorme, Yarmouth, Maine.

Alabama Historical Commission, Fort Toulouse-Fort Jackson State Historic Site: Walking Tour handout, undated.

Alabama Historical Commission, Fort Toulouse-Jackson Park brochure, undated.

Bailey, Michael, The Second British Attack on Fort Bowyer, February 1815, Fort Morgan Notes #15, Jan. 2004, revised Nov. 2006, Fort Morgan National Historic Landmark.

Bergeron, Arthur W., Jr., Confederate Mobile, 1991, University Press of Mississippi, Jackson, Mississippi.

Decatur-Morgan County Convention and Visitors Bureau, The 1864 Battle for Decatur, Alabama: A Civil War Walking Tour, brochure, 2001.

England, Bob, and Jack Friend, Michael Bailey, Blanton Blankenship, Fort Morgan, 2000, reprint 2004, Arcadia Publishing, Charleston, South Carolina.

Fort Gaines Historic Site, Fort Gaines brochure, 1995, 2012.

Fort Morgan National Historic Landmark, Fort Morgan, 1834: Guardian on the Bay brochure, undated.

Gaines, William C., The Modern Coast Defenses of Mobile Bay 1865-1945 (Part I), in The Coast Defense Journal, Vol. 24, No. 1, Feb. 2010.

Gaines, William C., The Modern Coast Defenses of Mobile Bay 1865-1945 (Part II), in The Coast Defense Journal, Vol. 24, No. 2, May 2010.

Gaines, William C., The Modern Coast Defenses of Mobile Bay 1865-1945 (Part III), in The Coast Defense Journal, Vol. 24, No. 3, Aug. 2010.

Manuel, Dale A., The Defenses of the Lower Mobile Bay, 1999, self-published.

Marquis, Christopher G., Reckoning at Horseshoe Bend, in Military Heritage Magazine, August 2010.

Smith, Bolling, Fort Powell: Forgotten Guardian of Mobile Bay, in The Coast Defense Study Group Journal, Vol. 14, No. 4, Nov. 2000.

Thomas, Daniel H., Fort Toulouse: The French Outpost at the Alabamas on the Coosa, 1960, 1989, The University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa, Alabama.

Wertz, Jay, Mobile, in Civil War Times Magazine, October 2006.

ATLANTIC ISLANDS

Greenland Holiday Travel Guide, 1994, Greenland Tourism a/s, Nuuk, Greenland.

Bermuda: What To Do and Handy Reference Map, 1994, Bermuda Department of Tourism, Hamilton, Bermuda.

Caribbean TravelBook 1998, American Automobile Association, Heathrow, Florida.

Caribbean Vacation Planner, Vol. 2, 1995, Caribbean Coalition for Tourism, New York.

Discover Jamaica Road Map, undated (1994 ?), American Map Corporation.

Jamaica Vacation Guide 1996, Creative Communications Inc., Ltd., Kingston, Jamaica.

1995 Road Map - Antigua and Barbuda, Cartographers Limited, Mantoloking, New Jersey.

Discover Trinidad and Tobago Travel Guide 1995, Trinidad and Tobago Hotel and Tourism Association, Port of Spain, Trinidad.

Donovan, James A., Outpost in the North Atlantic: Marines in the Defense of Iceland, 1992, Marine Corps Historical Center, Washington.

Findlay, Robert, The Guide to the Forts and Castles of the Caribbean Islands, 2007 (6th ed.), self-published, Lulu.com.

Furbert, Lance, III, Forts of Bermuda in Bermuda's Parks brochure, 1998, Bermuda Dept. of Tourism, Hamilton, Bermuda.

Gaines, William C., 28th Coast Artillery Battalion and the Defense of Saint Lucia and Ascension Islands, in the Coast Defense Journal, Vol. 20, No. 3, Aug. 2006.

Gaines, William C., Coast Artillery in the Trinidad Base Command and Sector, 1941-1946, in The Coast Defense Study Group Journal, Vol. 11, No. 2, May 1997.

Gaines, William C., The United States Coast Artillery Command on Aruba and Curaçao in World War II, in The Coast Defense Study Group Journal, Vol. 11, No. 2, May 1997.

Grobmeier, Alvin H., Battery B, 28th Coast Artillery Battalion on Ascension Island, in Coast Defense Study Group News, Vol. 5, No. 1, Feb. 1991.

Herz, Norman, Covering the Azores Gap, in WWII History Magazine, December 2009.

Jones, Rosemary, Moon Handbooks: Bermuda, 2009 (2nd Edition), Avalon Travel Publishing, Berkeley, California.

McGovern, Terrance, The World War II Defenses of Bermuda, in The Coast Defense Study Group Journal, Vol. 12, No. 1, Feb. 1998.

Rogozinski, Jan, A Brief History of the Caribbean: From the Arawak and the Carib to the Present, 1992, Facts on File, Inc., New York.

Stevenson, Ian, The Defenses of the British West Indies: The Last Three Score Years and Ten, in The Coast Defense Study Group Journal, Vol. 14, No. 3, Aug. 2000.

Travelguide Publishers, Inc., Nassau: A Complete Guide to the Capital of the Bahamas, 1963, Nassua, Bahamas.

Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, Merriam-Webster Inc., Springfield, Massachusetts.

Zink, Robert D., CDSG Trip Tour of Bermuda Forts, March 1989, in Coast Defense Study Group News, Vol. 3, No. 3, Aug. 1989.

CANAL ZONE

Gardner, Hugh H., and Norman T. Carpenter, The Fortifications of the Panama Canal, 1965, reprinted transcription (with Supplemental Data Declassified in 1976) by Bill Cole, 1999.

Friar, William, Moon Spotlight Guide: Panama City and the Panama Canal, 2008, Avalon Travel Publishing, Berkeley, California.

McGovern, Terrance, The American Defences of the Panama Canal, 1999, Nearhos Publications, Rock Ferry, Wirral, United Kingdom.

FLORIDA

Florida Atlas and Gazetteer, 2003 (7th edition), DeLorme, Yarmouth, Maine.

Baker County Haritage Park, Burnsed Block House brochure, 2003.

Bennett, Charles E., Fort Caroline and Its Leader, 1976, The University of Florida Press, Gainesville, Florida (reprint 2002, Eastern National Parks Association).

Bushnell, Amy T., Situado and Sabana: Spain's Support System for the Presidio and Mission Provinces of Florida, Anthropological Papers, No. 74, American Museum of Natural History, 1994, University of Georgia Press, Athens, Georgia.

Carlisle, Rodney, and Loretta, Forts of Florida: A Guidebook, 2012, University Press of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.

Chandler, Linda (ed.), Fort Matanzas National Monument, Park Handbook, 2002, Historic Print and Map Company, St. Augustine, Florida.

Chartrand, René, The Spanish Main 1492 - 1800, 2006, Osprey Publishing Ltd., Botley, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Coleman, James C., and Irene S., Guardians on the Gulf: Pensacola Fortifications, 1698-1980, 1982, revised 1995, reprint 2000, Pensacola Historical Society, Pensacola, Florida.

Deagan, Kathleen, and Darcie MacMahon, Fort Mose: Colonial America's Black Fortress of Freedom, 1995, University Press of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.

Eastman, Joel W., A Visit to Fort Dade in Tampa Bay, Florida, in Coast Defense Study Group Journal, Vol. 7, No. 2, May 1993.

Florida Association of Museums, Florida Civil War Heritage Trail, undated (2011).

Florida Division of Recreation and Parks, Fort Clinch State Park brochure, 2004.

Florida Division of Recreation and Parks, Fort Clinch State Park, History of Fort Clinch, 1847-1945 handout, undated.

Florida Division of Recreation and Parks, Fort Foster Historic Site brochure, 2003.

Florida Division of Recreation and Parks, Fort Mose Historic State Park brochure, 2010.

Florida Division of Recreation and Parks, Fort Zachary Taylor Historic State Park brochure, 2002.

Florida Division of Recreation and Parks, Fort Zachary Taylor, Fort Zachary Taylor Self-Guided Tour brochure, undated.

Florida Division of Recreation and Parks, San Marcos de Apalache Historic State Park brochure, 2002.

Fort Christmas Historical Society, History of Fort Christmas, 2000, Fort Christmas, Florida.

Gaines, William C., The Coast Artillery at Pensacola Bay, 1898-1946, in Coast Defense Study Group Journal, Vol. 8, No. 1, Feb. 1994.

Gaines, William C., The Coastal and Harbor Defenses of Key West, Florida, in Coast Defense Study Group Journal, Vol. 7, No. 4, Nov. 1993.

Gaines, William C., The Defenses of Cumberland Sound, 1738-1900, in The Coast Defense Journal, Vol. 17, No. 4, Nov. 2003.

Gaines, William C., Defenses of Florida's St. Johns River, 1898-1944, in The Coast Defense Journal, Vol. 18, No. 1, Feb. 2004.

Gaines, William C., The Temporary Harbor Defenses of Fort Lauderdale, Florida, 1942-1944, in The Coast Defense Study Group Journal, Vol. 9, No. 2, May 1995.

Gaines, William C., The World War II Temporary Harbor Defenses of Tampa, 1942-1944, in The Coast Defense Journal, Vol. 17, No. 1, Feb. 2003.

Hall, Maggi, and the St. Augustine Historical Society, St. Augustine, 2002, Arcadia Publishing, Charleston, South Carolina.

James, Russell D., Coastal Defense in Florida During the Mexican War, adapted from Too Late for Blood: Florida Volunteers in the Mexican War, in The Coast Defense Journal, Vol. 16, No. 3, Aug. 2002.

Jameson, Colin G., History of East Martello Tower, Key West, 1992 (3rd edition revised), The Key West Art and Historical Society, Inc., Key West, Florida.

Kalesnik, Frank L., Caged Tigers: Native American Prisoners in Florida, 1875-1888, in The Journal of America's Military Past, Vol. XXVIII, No. 1, Spring/Summer 2001.

Key West Art and Historical Society, The East Martello Museum and Gallery: A Self-Guided Tour brochure, undated.

The Key West Garden Club, History of West Martello Tower, Joe Allen Garden Center, Key West, Florida booklet, undated.

The Key West Garden Club, The Key West Garden Club and West Martello Tower brochure and map, undated.

Knetsch, Joe, Florida's Seminole Wars 1817-1858, 2003, Arcadia Publishing, Charleston, South Carolina.

Knetsch, Joe, Fort Cross on Cape Sable: Controlling Trade Between Cuba and the Seminoles in the Third Seminole War, in The Journal of America's Military Past, Vol. XXIX, No. 1, Spring/Summer 2002.

Knetsch, Joe, Fort Drane, 1836-1837: A Moment of Fame in the Whirlwind of War, in The Journal of America's Military Past, Vol. XXXI, No. 2, Fall 2005.

Kross, Peter, Seventy-one-year-old George Matthews was an unlikely point man for covert American efforts to annex Florida in the early 1800s, in Military Heritage Magazine, October 2010.

Landers, Jane, Fort Mose - Gracia Real de Santa Teresa de Mose: A Free Black Town in Spanish Colonial Florida, 1992, St. Augustine Historical Society, St. Augustine, Florida.

Mahon, John K., History of the Second Seminole War, 1835-1842, Revised Edition, 1967, 1985, University Press of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.

Manucy, Albert C., Pages from the Past: A Pictorial History of Fort Jefferson, 1999, Florida National Parks and Monuments Association, Inc., Homestead, Florida.

Manuel, Dale A., Pensacola Bay: A Military History, 2004, Arcadia Publishing, Charleston, South Carolina.

Mayhew, Dean R., Defending Southeast Florida, in Coast Defense Study Group Journal, Vol. 7, No. 1, Feb. 1993.

McCall, Bruce Ed., Coastal Defense of Tampa Bay, in The Coast Defense Study Group Journal, Vol. 10, No. 3, Aug. 1996.

McCall, Bruce Ed., Remains of the Coast Defenses of Tampa Bay, March 1996, in The CDSG Newsletter, Aug. 1996.

McEwan, Bonnie G. (editor), The Spanish Missions of La Florida, 1993, University Press of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.

Milanich, Jerald T., Laboring in the Fields of the Lord: Spanish Missions and Southeastern Indians, 1999, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington.

Muir, Thomas, Jr., and David P. Ogden, The Fort Pickens Story, 1989, Pensacola Historical Society, Pensacola, Florida.

National Park Service, Castillo de San Marcos National Monument, Handbook 149, 1993, Division of Publications, Washington.

National Park Service, Castillo de San Marcos National Monument brochure, 2003.

National Park Service, Castillo de San Marcos NM, undated handouts: Self-Guided Map; Don Manuel de Cendoya (Governor of Florida 1669-1673); Seminole Indians (imprisoned); Plains Indians (imprisoned); Apache Indians (imprisoned).

National Park Service, Dry Tortugas National Park brochure, 2002.

National Park Service, Fort Caroline National Memorial brochure, 2003.

National Park Service, Fort Caroline NM, Ribault Monument handout, undated.

National Park Service, Fort Jefferson National Monument brochure, 1992.

National Park Service, Fort Matanzas National Monument brochure, 1992.

National Park Service, Fort Matanzas National Monument brochure, 2002.

National Park Service, Fort Matanzas NM, handouts: Coquina - The Rock that Saved St. Augustine (1999); Barrier Islands - The Changing Landscape of Matanzas (undated); Fort Mose (2003), The Spanish Flag (2000).

National Park Service, Gulf Islands National Seashore brochure, 2004.

National Park Service, Gulf Islands NS, Advanced Redoubt of Fort Barrancas handout, 2004.

National Park Service, Gulf Islands NS, Fort Barrancas handout, undated.

National Park Service, Gulf Islands NS, Fort Barrancas handout, 2005.

National Park Service, Gulf Islands NS, Fort Pickens Self-Guided Tour booklet, 2011.

National Park Service, Timucuan Ecological and Historic Preserve brochure, 2006.

National Park Service, Timucuan EHP, undated handouts: The Huguenots; St. Johns Bluff; "People of the Shell Mounds"; Trails Map.

Ogden, David P., The Fort Barrancas Story, 1997, reprint 2008, Eastern National Parks Association.

Orange County Parks and Recreation Division, Fort Christmas Historical Park brochure, undated.

Orange County Parks and Recreation Division, Fort Christmas Historical Park: Historical Structures brochure, 2000.

Pinellas County Park Department, Fort De Soto Historic Area brochure, undated.

Pinellas County Park Department, Fort De Soto Park Quartermaster Storehouse Museum brochure, undated.

Pinellas County Park Department, History of Fort De Soto Park booklet, undated.

de Quesada, Alejandro M., A History of Florida Forts: Florida's Lonely Outposts, 2006, The History Press, Charleston, South Carolina.

St. Photios Greek Orthodox National Shrine, The New Smyrna Colony: The Story of the First Greek Colony brochure, undated.

Vaughan, Tom, Fort DeSoto: H.D. of Tampa Bay, in Coast Defense Study Group News, Vol. 4, No. 4, Nov. 1990.

Wright, Newell O., and Tegan Swain, Mathilda Cox, Uncovering the British Colonial Past in Northwest Florida, in Cultural Resources Management Bulletin No. 13, 1997, National Park Service, Washington.

GUANTANAMO BAY

Floyd, Dale E., Guantanamo Bay's Army Fortifications, 1898-1917, in FORTRESS, Issue No. 6, Aug. 1990, Beaufort Publishing Ltd., Liphook, Hants, United Kingdom.

Murphy, M. E., The History of Guantanamo Bay 1494 - 1964, 1953, updated and revised 1964, self-published (?) manuscript (transcription from internet).

LOUISIANA

Louisiana Atlas and Gazetteer, 2003 (2nd edition), DeLorme, Yarmouth, Maine.

Chartrand, René, French Fortresses in North America 1535-1763, 2005, Osprey Publishing Ltd., Botley, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Frazer, Robert W., Forts of the West: Military Forts and Presidios and Posts Commonly Called Forts West of the Mississippi River to 1898, 1965, 1972, University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, Oklahoma.

Gauthreaux, Alan G., Hell on the Mississippi: The Confederate Defense of Forts Jackson and St. Philip, in Civil War Times Magazine, October 2006.

Manuel, Dale A., The Bombardment of Fort St. Philip, in the Coast Defense Journal, Vol. 20, No. 3, Aug. 2006.

Manuel, Dale A., Fort Livingston: The Lonely Sentinal of Barataria, in The Coast Defense Study Group Journal, Vol. 14, No. 4, Nov. 2000.

Manuel, Dale A., Fort Petite Coquilles, Louisiana: Barring the Door to New Orleans, in The Coast Defense Journal, Vol. 17, No. 2, May 2003.

Manuel, Dale A., Fort St. John, Louisiana, in The Coast Defense Journal, Vol. 16, No. 2, May 2002.

Manuel, Dale A., Fort St. Leon and the Fortifications at English Turn, Louisiana, in The Coast Defense Journal, Vol. 17, No. 3, Aug. 2003.

Manuel, Dale A., The Fortifications at Balize, Louisiana, in The Coast Defense Journal, Vol. 17, No. 3, Aug. 2003.

Morganza Restoration Association, Morganza, Louisiana: A Brief History brochure, undated.

Peña, Christopher G., Fiasco at Fort Butler, in America's Civil War Magazine, November 2000.

Pierson, Michael D., Mutiny at Fort Jackson: The Untold Story of the Fall of New Orleans, 2008, The University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.

Powles, James M., Union Fiasco at Head of the Passes, in America's Civil War Magazine, March 2001.

Remini, Robert V., The Battle of New Orleans: Andrew Jackson and America's First Military Victory, 1999, Viking (Penguin Putnam Inc.), New York City.

Sakurai, Gail, The Louisiana Purchase, 1998, Children's Press, Danbury, Connecticut.

Smith, Bolling W., The Fire Control Puzzle at New Orleans, in Coast Defense Journal, Vol. 23, No. 3, Aug. 2009.

Vaughan, Tom, Fort Jackson Trip Report, in Coast Defense Study Group News, Vol. 4, No. 3, Aug. 1990.

Zink, Robert D., Battery Bienvenue, Louisiana, in Coast Defense Study Group Journal, Vol. 8, No. 1, Feb. 1994.

Zink, Robert D., Forts of "Wherever" #18 - Forts of the U.S. Gulf Coast, Part II - Mississippi thru Texas, in Coast Defense Study Group Journal, Vol. 7, No. 1, Feb. 1993.

MISSISSIPPI

Mississippi Atlas and Gazetteer, 2010 (4th edition), DeLorme, Yarmouth, Maine.

Ballard, Michael B., The Campaign for Vicksburg, 1996, National Park Civil War Series, Eastern National.

Burkett, H. Clark, Fort Washington: The Forgotten Fort of the Mississippi Territory, in The Journal of America's Military Past, Vol. XXVII, No. 3, Winter 2001.

Debo, Angie, The Rise and Fall of the Choctaw Republic, 1934, 1961 (2nd edition), Red River Books, University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, Oklahoma.

DeRosier, Arthur H., Jr., The Removal of the Choctaw Indians, 1970 (reprint 1999), The University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, Tennessee.

Lincecum, Gideon, Pushmataha: A Choctaw Leader and his People, 1904, 1906, reprint 2004, Fire Ant Books, The University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa, Alabama.

Manuel, Dale A., Fort Maurepas, Vieux Biloxi, in the Coast Defense Journal, Vol. 20, No. 3, Aug. 2006.

Mississippi Division of Tourism Development, The Civil War travel guide, undated.

National Park Service, Gulf Islands NS, Fort Massachusetts handout, 1991.

Reeves, Carolyn Keller (ed.), The Choctaw Before Removal, 1985, University Press of Mississippi, Jackson, Mississippi.

Wells, Samuel J., and Roseanna Tubby (eds.), After Removal: The Choctaw in Mississippi, 1986, University Press of Mississippi, Jackson, Mississippi.

PUERTO RICO

Abrams, Betsy Lopez, The Forts (Los Fuertes) - San Juan, Puerto Rico, and St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands, undated, Papel, Inc., Santurce, Puerto Rico.

Caribe Tourist Promotions, Inc., Historic Old San Juan, 1971 (3rd edition), Carolina, Puerto Rico.

National Geographic Maps, Puerto Rico Adventure Map, 2011, Evergreen, Colorado.

National Park Service, The Forts of Old San Juan, Handbook 151, 1996, Division of Publications, Washington.

National Park Service, Historic Places in Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands: A National Register of Historic Places Travel Itinerary brochure, undated (2008).

Negroni, Héctor A., Historia Militar de Puerto Rico, 1992, Sociedad Estatal Quinto Centenario, San Juan, Puerto Rico.

San Juan National Historic Site, El Viejo San Juan handout, undated.

Van Atten, Suzanne, Moon Handbooks: Puerto Rico, 2006 (1st Edition), Avalon Travel Publishing, Emeryville, California.

Zink, Robert D., Forts of Everywhere - Harbor Defenses of San Juan and Roosevelt Roads, in Coast Defense Study Group News, Vol. 6, No. 1, Feb. 1992.

U.S. VIRGIN ISLANDS

United States Virgin Islands Visitors' Guide 1992, U.S. Virgin Islands Division of Tourism, Charlotte Amalie, St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands.

2007 Virgin Islands Map (U.S. & British) (3rd edition), Borch GmbH, Wörthsee, Germany.

Henighan, Susanna, Moon Handbooks: Virgin Islands, 2006 (3rd Edition), Avalon Travel Publishing, Berkeley, California.

National Park Service, Christiansted National Historic Site brochure, 1987.

National Park Service, Salt River Bay National Park and Ecological Preserve informational handout, 1992.

National Park Service, U.S. Virgin Islands, Handbook 157, 1999 (2001 reprint), Division of Publications, Washington.

National Park Service, Virgin Islands National Park brochure, 1993.

Pariser, Harry S., Explore the Virgin Islands, 2009 (Seventh Edition), Manatee Press, San Francisco.


Eastern U.S. Forts